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Chapitre 1: Charge et circulation de charges

electron

Salutation à tous,

Dans ce chapitre, nous allons définir ce qu’est l’électricité, puis comment elle se crée. Grâce à ça, nous pourrons donner une définition à la notion de courant et de tension électrique. Pour arriver à cet objectif, nous commencerons par un rappel sur les composants de la matière et la notion de charge électrique. Ce chapitre est très orienté physique. Je vais vous parler de notion qui peuvent paraitre complexe et rébarbative. Mais elles sont essentielles pour comprendre l’électronique et le fonctionnement de composant complexe (ex: le transistor).

Composition de la matière

Pour comprendre l’électricité, il nous faut plonger dans l’infiniment petit. Le monde qui nous entoure est intégralement constitué de matières. Cette matière est, elle-même, constituée d’une infinité de petites briques appelées atomes. Ces atomes sont un assemblage, plus ou moins compliqué, de trois types de particules élémentaires :

  • les neutrons
  • les électrons
  • les protons

constituant de la matiere

Les protons et neutrons forment le noyau de l’atome et les électrons circulent autour.

Le tableau de classification périodique des éléments répertorie tous les atomes connus à ce jour et précise, entre autre, leurs nombres d’électrons, protons et neutrons. Par exemple, l’atome d’hydrogène possède un électron, un neutron et un proton.

hydrigene

La notion de charge

Le proton et l’électron possèdent une charge électrique noté “q”. Cette charge électrique a été découverte par Coulomb en 1785, et cela, bien avant la découverte de l’électron en 1881 par Thomson. Cette charge électrique à plusieurs propriétés :

  • Elle peut être positive ou négative.
  • Elle est extensive : la charge complète d’un objet est égale à la somme des charges qui composent cet objet : q=q1+q2
  • Elle est conservative : une charge isolée ne varie pas au court du temps. Une variation de charge ne peut être du qu’à un échange avec l’extérieur.

Bien qu’une charge peut être positive ou négative. L’attribution du signe “+” ou “-”  est purement arbitraire. Mais il est important de respecter la même notation, pour des raisons évidentes de compréhension.

Les lois de l’électrolyse de Faraday (1791-1862) mettent en évidence une charge élémentaire “e”. Toute charge est égale à une somme de charge élémentaire.

q=e+e+e+…+e+e

Cette charge élémentaire est indivisible. Il n’existe aucune charge inférieure à “e”. elle vaut exactement 1,6.10-19 C (Coulomb).  Le Coulomb étant l’unité de la charge électrique en hommage à son découvreur. D’ailleurs, la charge électrique d’un électron est “-e” soit -1,6.10-19, celle d’un proton vaut “e” soit 1,6.10-19.

Un atome, à l’état naturel, doit être électriquement neutre. C’est à dire qu’il possède autant de charge positive que de charge négative. Comme les électrons sont à charges négatives et les protons à charges positives, les atomes possèdent autant d’électrons que de protons.

En résumé, nous savons que la matière est composée d’atomes. Cet atome possède des neutrons, des protons et des électrons. Les électrons posséde une charge négative et les protons une charge positive. Nous pouvons maintenant donner une définition du courant électrique.

 

Le courant électrique

Le courant électrique est une circulation de charges électriques dans la matière. Donc c’est une circulation d’électrons entre les atomes. Pour que les électrons se déplacent, il faut respecter une contrainte sur la matière : ELLE DOIT ÊTRE CONDUCTRICE. Si c’est le cas l’électron peut se déplacer suivant deux méthodes.

 

Définition d’une matière conductrice

Pour définir une matière conductrice, il faut s’intéresser à la théorie des bandes. Lorsqu’un électron est isolé, il peut prendre n’importe quel niveau d’énergie. Mais quand il est lié à un atome il ne peut prendre que des niveaux d’énergies spécifiques. La théorie des bandes définie ces niveaux d’énergies.

Pour bien comprendre, imaginez que le noyau d’un atome est le soleil et que les planètes sont des électrons. Les planètes tournent autour du soleil. Mais elles ne tournent pas au hasard, elles ont chacune une trajectoire bien définie et elles ne se croisent jamais. Les électrons c’est exactement pareil. Dans la théorie des bandes, ils orbitent autour du noyau composé de protons et de neutrons. Le niveau d’énergie d’un électron définit la “distance” qui le sépare du noyau. Ces niveaux d’énergie se mesurent en électronVolt, ”eV”. Chaque bande peut contenir un nombre précis d’électrons. La bande supérieure ne peut être remplie que si la bande inférieure est pleine.

system_solaire

Dans notre cas, il n’y a que deux bandes qui nous intéressent. La dernière bande complète, appelée bande de Valence, et la bande juste au dessus appelée bande de Conduction. Les électrons, dans la bande de Valence, ne peuvent pas se séparer de leurs atomes. Ils servent à créer les liens entre atomes. Les électrons de la bande de conduction peuvent circuler entre les atomes. Pour qu’un matériau soit conducteur, il faut que les électrons de la bande de Valence puissent passer sur la bande de conduction.

theorie des bandes

Sur le schéma si-dessus nous voyons les trois cas possibles. Un matériau conducteur a une bande de Valence qui se superpose avec celle de conduction. Les électrons n’ont aucun mal à circuler de l’une à l’autre. Il leur faut peu d’énergie. Les semi-conducteurs ont leurs deux bandes séparées de 1 eV. Normalement, il ne sont pas conducteurs. Mais comme leur bande sont proches énergétiquement, il suffit de donner un peu d’énergie aux électrons pour qu’ils traversent. Cette propriété est très utilisée de nos jours pour faire des composants programmables. Il reste le troisième cas, les deux bandes sont séparées par 6 eV ou plus. Les matériaux sont considerés comme isolants. Il faut énormerment d’énergies pour faire passer un électron d’une bande à l’autre.

Je donne un petit apparté. Les super-conducteurs utilisent le froid pour diminuer artificiellement l’écart d’énergitique entre la bande de Valence et la bande conductrice. Plus l’écart entre les bandes sont faibles, plus les électrons traversent facilement. Il est donc plus facile de faire circuler de l’energie dans le matériau.

Nous savons maintenant sous quelle condition les électrons circulent entre les atomes. Nous pouvons voir maintenant comment ils y prennent.

Méthodes de déplacement des électrons

Pour faire circuler les électrons, il y a deux méthodes. Soit on pousse un électron qui pousse son voisin. Nous créons un effet domino. Soit nous retirons un électron qui se fait remplacer par son voisin. Cela crée une charge positive. Dans ce cas là, nous parlons d’une circulation de “trou”.

Le plus intéressant dans ces méthodes, c’est qu’elles sont intimement liées. Lorsque nous poussons un électron, il va bousculer son voisin pour lui prendre sa place. Mais se faisant, il crée un trou dans l’atome qu’il vient de quitter. Ce trou sera comblé par un électron voisin. Donc, quand un électron circule dans un sens, des trous circulent obligatoirement dans l’autre sens.

Dit comme ça, on pourrait croire qu’il n’existe qu’une seule méthode au final. Mais l’être humain est très inventif. Il a trouvé le moyen de rajouter ou d’enlever des électrons à un atome puis de l’insérer dans un bloc de matières. Ces atomes sont appelés des ions. Ils peuvent être négatifs, s’ils ont des électrons en plus ou positifs s’ils ont des électrons en moins.

Dans le cas des ions négatifs, c’est l’électron en plus qui circule entre les atomes. Il n’y a donc pas de circulation de trou. A l’inverse, dans le cas des ions positifs, c’est le trou qui passe d’atomes en atomes sans que les électrons ne circulent.

 

Définition du courant

Les électrons se déplacent naturellement dans la matière. C’est un phénomène permanent. D’ailleurs, la température d’un objet est en relation direct avec le déplacement des électrons. Mais ce déplacement est chaotique, aucun électron ne va dans le même sens

Grâce à l’effet d’un champs magnétique ou électrique, nous pouvons créer un déplacement ordonné des électrons dans la matière. Ce courant d’électron crée une circulation de charges négatives dans le sens du courant (les électrons) et positives dans le sens inverse (les fameux trous). Ce phénomène est appelé électricité.

 

Conclusion

Vous savez maintenant ce qu’est l’électricité. S’il vous reste des points obscures à éclaircir n’hésitez pas à poser des questions dans les commentaires. Pour le prochain chapitre, nous définirons la notion de courant “I” et de tension “U” avec leurs unitées respectives, les Ampères et les Volts. A très bientôt !

 

Introduction

 

Partagez et suivez nous

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